Ava

   (Inwa)
   Meaning "mouth of the river" (in-wa), Ava began its history as a royal capital during the reign of King Thadominbya (1364-1368) and remained the capital of Burman (Bamar) kingdoms until the early Toungoo Dynasty. King Thalun returned the capital from Pegu (Bago) to Ava in 1635, where it remained until 1752, when it was laid waste by Mon rebels. It was the Konbaung Dynasty royal capital from 1765 to 1783, during the reigns of Kings Hsinbyushin (r. 1763-1776), Singu Min (r. 1776-1781), and Maung Maung (r. 1781), but King Bodawpaya moved the capital to Amarapura in 1783. Between 1823 and 1837, Ava served as the capital again, but an earthquake damaged it in 1837, and King Tharawaddy (r. 1838-1846) moved the capital back to Amarapura. Ava is located on the eastern bank of the Irrawaddy (Ayeyarwady) River southwest of Mandalay, where the Irrawaddy is joined by the smaller Myitnge River, and close to the irrigated rice fields of Kyaukse. Little of its past glory remains. Timbers from the Ava palace were used in the 19th century to build U Bein's bridge, the longest teak bridge in the world (1.2 kilometers), in neighboring Amarapura. Other sites include the Ava Bridge, built by the British in 1934, which was until the 1990s the only bridge spanning the Irrawaddy River; and the Ok Kyaung, a wooden monastery built by Me Nu, King Bagyidaw's chief queen. During the 19th century, the term "Ava" was often synonymous with Upper Burma.
   See also Ava Period.

Historical Dictionary of Burma (Myanmar). . 2014.

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